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"Promoters are important in determining when specific genes are turned on and off," says Feigin, "and I became interested in figuring out whether mutations within promoters -- as opposed to within the genes they regulate -consistently affects the way cancers develop and sustain themselves." The team "looked all across the genome," Feigin says, "and, interestingly, while we did find mutations in promoters, we never found clusters of these mutations near any of the genes that prior research had already told us were typically mutated in pancreatic cancer." Genes called KRAS and p53 are mutated in the majority of pancreas cancer cells, for example.But mutations in promoters sifted out of mountains of data by the team's novel mathematical formula, or algorithm, called GECCO, lay in genes never before implicated in pancreatic cancer.
There have been other papers which show that Ashkenazi Jews form a separate cluster from gentile whites in the United States. Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent.By broader definitions Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide.It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe; the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe; and the Moscow International Business Center.By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), and it gained an additional population of 233,000 people.If cancer is a disease precipitated by changes in genes, after all, we need to know lots about how and when different genes change in the many distinctive subtypes of cancer.
But a new wave of research, exemplified by a study published in Nature Genetics by a team at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), is significantly improving our ability to target cancer cells by studying "the other 98%" of DNA in human chromosomes, sometimes called the genome's "dark matter." Research led by Michael Feigin, Ph.
Carl Zimmer pointed me to a new paper, A genome-wide genetic signature of Jewish ancestry perfectly separates individuals with and without full Jewish ancestry in a large random sample of European Americans.
The title is so informative that pasting the abstract is almost unnecessary, but here is the conclusion which gets to the point: In conclusion, we show that, at least in the context of the studied sample, it is possible to predict full Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, although it should be noted that the exact dividing line between a Jewish and non-Jewish cluster will vary across sample sets which in practice would reduce the accuracy of the prediction.
This is a taboo topic in much of the region, so getting good quantitative data seems pretty much impossible. For Iran there is a notation of “unspecified male-to-male sexual contacts,” so I take the figure for Iran to mean that 29% of sexually active unmarried men in Iran are engaging in activities with other men.
But today came out with a paper with a result which suggests that the anecdotes of relatively widespread homosexual behavior in the Middle East are not totally unfounded or unrepresentative (the journalist Hugh Pope has indicated that Middle Eastern men have sometimes assumed he would naturally be open to sexual propositions because he was a Westerner. The paper is about HIV, Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa? Does this mean that 29% of men in this sample are gay? As you likely know Iran’s state imposes conservative sexual mores upon its population.
Do note that I’ve resized and added explanatory labels here & there for clarity.